Fuels made from oils with large hydrocarbon molecules, like HFO, are inefficient for certain applications, not flowing easily and being difficult to ignite. At a refinery, cracked fuels are created through a process called cracking – a fluid catalytic cracking unit uses heat and a catalyst to break (crack) large hydrocarbon molecules into smaller molecules. This produces a range of oils – heavy, light and clarified cycle oil – which is blended in varying amounts to produce inland diesel oil and inland fuel oil for use mainly by low and medium speed diesel engines which are designed to burn lower value fuels.

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